Politics is the study of political systems or processes, including the distribution of political power and authority, and the role of political institutions in making these political systems. The field of political science is often referred to as social science because it studies society and politics as a whole, rather than focusing on a specific area of human endeavor. Politics may be viewed from many perspectives, including a perspective of the individual politician, the legislature, national politics, international politics, and even the struggles of local communities within broader political arenas. The political systems and institutions in place today have developed and changed dramatically since the advent of representative government, resulting in new institutional challenges for those charged with the duty of leading the polity.
Politics is an ever-evolving field, with shifts in society taking place everyday. There are three major schools of thought in politics: constitutionalism, liberalism, and conservatism. One school of thought about politics is known as constitutionalism, which describes a political philosophy that limits the scope of governmental power and seeks to ensure that the outcome of political decision-making is held to theutions and values of the democratic society. Constitutionalists usually favor a balanced system of government as it renders certain levels of accountability and protection against the abuse of governmental power.
A second school of thought about politics is known as liberalism, which is a reaction to the authority of the traditional institution of religion and classical liberal thought. Liberalists support freedom of speech and political expression, equal rights and responsibilities of citizens, and a moderate stand on issues of war and peace. A third school of thought about politics is called conservatism, which is an alternative to liberalism and constitutionalism, and opposes big government and social intervention. Conservative politicians and commentators often favor a strong national defense and a strong national role in international affairs.
The field of politics has many areas of specialization, each with its own interpretation and defining characteristics. One of these is social policy, which studies how people form and organize political relationships within a country or region. Social policy also studies how these relationships affect social welfare and the well-being of society in general. Another area of specialization in politics is public administration, particularly governmental institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities. Public administration studies the administration of various types of public services such as healthcare and education.
Politics and public administration have many topics in common. Both groups look at how politics influences the administration of public services. They also share some ideas on how to solve public problems by working through political parties or government institutions. As much as politics may seem simple, there is a lot of behind the scenes work that goes on behind the scenes. In fact, most experts agree that one of the biggest factors in politics is bureaucracy.
Politics and the political economy are closely related and intertwined. Politics is a part of the economic system and the political economy is part of politics. They are both rooted in the theories of classical political philosophy. Classical political philosophy refers to the ancient Greek and Roman philosophies that concentrate on how politics and the political system’s function. These include such thinkers as Aristotle, Plato, and Machiavelli. Other philosophers who are considered to be part of the classical school of thought are Plato, Socrates, and Montesquieu.
Politics and the making laws are part of the interaction of individuals within a polity. The process of making laws and changing them into law is called politics. Individuals make choices and then to choose to cooperate or defect based on the outcome of those choices. If the individual defaults on a political obligation, they can often feel guilty for not performing what is expected of them. This is often seen in the way that political parties try to influence the citizens of a polity to make certain decisions and to vote their way in terms of elections and so forth.
Politics and the making laws are central to understanding how individuals interact within a polity. There are five key takeaways that every student of politics should learn. The first is that politics is the process by which groups of people make informed decisions about how their lives and social relationships will be governed. The second key point is that those choices are governed by the rules of classical political theory, which are also known as utilitarian theories of politics. The third key point is that those decisions are made by individuals in accordance with their own moral beliefs and also according to the principles of classical liberal theory, which holds that each individual has the right to peacefully pursue their own self-interest without harming others.